An infectologist explains the differences between types of HIV prophylaxis

Since the outbreak of the HIV epidemic in the Nineteen Eighties, the virus has gone by way of a tragic path that has killed many individuals to its present state with important remedies undetectable. HIV an infection continues to be a actuality, and in Mato Grosso, till November of this 12 months, 555 circumstances had been registered, in accordance with knowledge from the Ministry of Health, the mortality charge is 4.9 annual deaths per 100,000 inhabitants.

Despite this state of affairs, advances in science present high quality of life and prevention means that may assure larger security for these with the virus in addition to for these uncovered to the virus, whether or not by way of sexual activity or in any other case.

Chapologist Paula Battaglini, who works at Hospital São Mateus in Cuaba, analyzes how pre-exposure (PreP) and post-exposure (PEP) prophylaxis in addition to antiretroviral remedy (ART) have ensured that the struggle in opposition to HIV is more and more is Effective

Preppy

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreP) has been made accessible by the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil since 2017. Initially, it’s geared toward people who find themselves at excessive danger of publicity to the virus.

In September 2022, the Ministry of Health up to date the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines (PCDT) to make sure that PreP can be utilized by all individuals over the age of 15, sexually energetic and at elevated danger for HIV. It is noteworthy that adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age can entry well being providers with out the should be accompanied by their dad and mom.

“The use of PreP works as follows: on the first day you are taking two tablets and from then on, it’s a day by day capsule. By taking this drug appropriately, with out an interval between doses, with seven days in the rectal mucosa and three weeks, the ideally suited stage of safety of the drug in the vaginal mucosa. It is feasible to achieve”, he explains.

According to docs, utilizing PreP ensures as much as 95% prevention amongst males who’ve intercourse with males (MSM) and trans girls who’ve anal intercourse. In cisgender and heterosexual individuals, prevention can fluctuate between 49% and 84%, and in cisgender girls, the danger of an infection is decreased between 60% and 66%, whereas in cisgender males it could fluctuate between 80% and 85%.

PreP is offered by the SUS and will also be bought in pharmacies, however solely with knowledgeable prescription.

PEP

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is given inside 72 hours after publicity to the virus. Infectologist Paula Battaglini explains that an individual should be requested a number of questions earlier than PEP can be utilized, corresponding to what organic materials the particular person was uncovered to and whether or not this publicity truly predisposed them to an infection by HIV.

“If it comes into contact with organic materials involved with intact pores and skin, that is unlikely to be infectious by HIV. The biggest danger includes unprotected intercourse, and the an infection doesn’t essentially happen in a single relationship”, highlights the knowledgeable.

PEP is barely accessible by way of SUS and is prescribed by a well being skilled solely after analyzing all publicity components. The drug is given for 28 days, after which the check is repeated to establish whether or not seroconversion has occurred – whether or not HIV detrimental is maintained.

Paula explains that one other issue to contemplate when deciding whether or not or to not use PeP is the serology of the particular person to whom the affected person was uncovered, and that the danger of transmission of the virus to seropositive people with an unknown viral load is negligible. .

ART

Faced with a analysis of HIV/AIDS, the affected person is handled with antiretroviral remedy (ART), a drug that should be taken day by day with out interruption for all times and retains the viral load undetectable.

“Surveillance by a well being skilled is crucial for anybody recognized with HIV/AIDS. There is not any remedy for HIV, however there are very efficient remedies, with few opposed results or unintended effects, with a excessive genetic barrier—a excessive likelihood of therapeutic success, to maintain the viral load undetectable and decrease dangerous results. . Causes viruses in the physique”, the infectologist factors out.

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